How
Pages: 1 2 3 4 |     next »

If all the holes of a boat are plugged, no water enters; similarly; when one stops all the activities leading to äsrav like mithyättva, etc., he prevents the influx of Karmas. The process of stopping the influx is the best device for a living being. Äsrav is the problem, and samvar is the solution. Äsrav is the state of sleepiness, and samvar is the state of alertness. Äsrav takes Jiva to a lower level, and samvar takes the Jiva to a higher level. Samvar is the right thing to do; it is the right path for spiritual progress.

Every worldly soul happens to be confined (not free). The imprisonment is due to the bondage of Karma (bandha). To be free, Jiva has to eradicate the Karmas he is bound by. The process of eradicating the Karmas is called Nirjarä. The word Nirjarä means to fall off. It denotes dripping off, destruction, or removal of Karmas from the soul. Inflow of Karma is due to äsrav, the stoppage of the inflow is due to samvar and the eradication of Karma is due to nirjarä.  Jiva can shed the Karmas and purify his soul with the help of austerities.

Sakäm Nirjarä & Akäm Nirjarä

Karmas are shed in two ways:
1) forcing the process of eradication by special self-efforts, which is called sakäm nirjarä, and
2) eradication without self-efforts is called akäm nirjarä. When Karmas are brought to maturity ahead off their time by special efforts with a view to eradicate them prematurely, it is called sakäm nirjarä. When Karmas mature and drip off in due course, it is called akäm nirjarä. By resorting to Yoga or austerities, one can shed his Karmas and also earn punya. But the purposeshould be nirjarä, not to earn punya.

External Types of Nirjarä

There are twelve types of austerities (tap), of which six are external and six are internal... The external Tap involves enduring hardships Such Tap is observed for developing   spiritual capabilities. The following are the six types of external tap:

01. Anashan (fasting):

Anashan is derived from Ashan which means to eat. The prefix a givea negative connotation. Anashan therefore means not to eat. It conveys renouncing of food, water, etc. for a day or days or for the remaining lifetime. This is physical Anashan. One can combine the physical anashan with bhäv anashan by exercising total control of the inner desires for a short or a long time. Anashan for a day or days is called fasting, and Anashan for the rest of the life is called santhäro. When one’s death is imminent in next few days, he undertakes several vows including fasting so as to have the remaining time spent spiritually. This process is called santhäro. Santhäro is the art of dying. After undertaking the santhäro, one fast peacefully, forgives everyone, asks for forgiveness for all his mistakes that he might have committed knowingly or unknowingly, and gets absorbed in the serene recitation of panch parmesthi.   His fasting can go on for several days till his soul leaves the body peacefully.

02. Unodari (Partial Fasting)

Unodari is made of two words - una and udar. Una means somewhat less and udar means stomach. To eat less than the normal diet is called unodari. The deeper meaning of unodari is to practice more self-restraints (Sanyam) by reducing unwholesome activities.

One can have many negative emotions that can lead him to wrong path. Therefore, it is important that one not only reduces his normal diet but also reduces his passions. By reducing the intake of the food and controlling the passions, one not only gains physically, but also benefits mentally, emotionally and spiritually. Unodary of food and passions keeps Jiva healthy and keeps away from doctor and diseases, but  most importantly, it strengthens the spirituality.

03Vruti-sankshep (Bhikshächari or Limiting Food Items)

This is the third type of nirjarä, which is for developing the willpower. In this type of austerity, one takes abhigraha (makes some resolution). This type of austerity is mostly carried out by the Jain ascetics. One may also take abhigraha on the day of terminating the austerities... There are four types of abhigrahas - 1. Material (Dravya) - To have pre-determination of having certain items is called Dravya abhigraha. 2. Area (kshetra) - To take food at a specific location is called kshetra abhigraha, 3. Time (käl) - To fix a specific time is called käl abhigraha and 4. Mode (bhäv) - To get the food only from a particular individual or a certain type of person is called bhäv abhigraha.

Mahävir Bhagawän had undertaken an Abhigraha when he was yet to attain the perfect knowledge. It was the twelfth year of his spiritual pursuit.  He was continually meditating and observing severe austerities. . Once he set up apparently improbable stipulations for accepting food.  He vowed that he would accept food only if soaked black peas were offered to him from a winnower, by a princess in chains, with shaved head, who had fasted for three days and who had tears flowing from her eyes.  How all these conditions can be fulfilled at one time?

For months he used to go for alms and came back without food because his stipulations could not be fulfilled.  But how the fate could allow so great a saint to die for want of food?  The fate had brought apparent havoc on Chandanbala as if to enable her to fulfill the divine mission of terminating six months’ fasts of Lord Mahavir!

So the Lord happened to come for alms where Chandanbala was thinking to offer food to some Muni.  He saw all his stipulations coming true. There was a princess in chains with cleaned shaven head, having fasted for three days, offering black peas from winnowing pan.  Chandanbala was happy to see the great ascetic in front of her and cheerfully offered the peas.  For Lord this was the right situation for accepting food.  But nay, where were the tears?  He declined the offer and turned back.

Chandanbala felt intensely miserable that the sage did not accept her food.  She started crying and tears began to roll down her eyes as she repeatedly entreated the great ascetic to accept her humble offer.  The Lord looked back and saw the tears rolling down her cheeks.  Now all his hard stipulations were fulfilling and he willingly accepted the food offered by her.

04. Ras-tyäg (Limiting Tasty Food)

This is the fourth type of nirjarä. It involves renouncing the tasty food that one likes. This is for conquering the desire for tasty food and eliminating the attachment for the tasty food, and thus, enabling to strengthen the spiritual capability. There are many ways to limit the consumption of tasty food. For example: performance of äyambil (tasteless meal - no oil, butter, red pepper, green or raw vegetables, etc.), abstaining from vigai (absence of milk, oil, butter, sugar, yogurt, and fried food), etc. To suppress one’s passions, it is essential that he overcomes his desire for tasty food. One, who has a desire for tasty food, cannot be free of sensual instinct. Mahävir’s preaching in this respect is now more adopted by western doctors. American doctors tell their heart patients to reduce or stop the intake of milk, butter, sugar and the like. By willingly, putting the limits to the tasty foods one eradicates the Karmas, and better health, lower risk of heart decease, diabetes, etc. are the by-products.

05Käyäklesh (Physical Forbearance)

Käyä means body and klesha means forbearance. Body is an instrument that is needed in good condition for undertaking spiritual pursuit (Sädhanä), and, therefore, it is important to develop its endurance power. By developing physical endurance power, Jiva is enabled to tolerate the bodily inconveniences with equanimity. There are several ways, one can practice the austerity of käyäklesha: 1. Location:  This involves practicing Sädhanä while standing. 2. Yogic posture (äsana): This involves practicing of various yogic postures such as virtäsan, vajräsan (diamond posture), padmäsan (lotus posture), etc. 3. Shayan (in lying down position): This involves practicing käyotsarga (total relaxation by experiencing that body and soul are separate) while lying down on the left or the right side. 4. Ätäpana: This requires standing steadily while facing the sun. 5. Aprävaran: This needs tolerating cold, especially in the winter season, without any or with few clothes on. 6. Sharir parikrama - parityäg: This involves putting on an exotic makeup on the body.

06. Pratisanlinatä (Controlling of Senses)

There are nine types of präyaschhit.

  1. To confess one's mistake in the presence of the preceptor and with a pure heart ‑that is called älochana.
  2. To repent for the mistake that has been committed and to refrain from it, as also to remain alert that no new mistakes are committed ‑that is called pratikraman.
  3. When these älochana and pratikramana are performed together ‑that is called a combination of Alochana and pratikramana.
  4. When forbidden food and/or drink happen to have been received and the fact comes to light, then to discard these food and drink ‑that is called vivek.
  5. To regret for the mistake committed, one adopts concentration and gives up the operations of body and speech ‑that is called vyutsarga.
  6. To regret for the mistake committed, one performs external penances like anashan etc. ‑that is called tap.
  7. Corresponding to the gravity of the offense committed, the reckoned period of monkshood is reduced by a day, a fortnight, a month or a year ‑that is called chheda.
  8. To keep the offender at a distance and not to have any dealing with him for a specific period ‑that is called parihära.
  9. When on account of the violation, the adopted vratas are deemed to be forfeited ‑that is called upasthäpanä.Ordinarily, we use our senses to satisfy our external needs, and that is supposed to give happiness. Pratisamlinatä involves restraining the senses from external happiness, and diverts their use for spiritual uplift. To control the sensual desires is also pratisamlinatä. As regard the sensual things, not to see them by eyes, not to hear them by ears, not to smell them by nose, not to taste them by tongue, and not to touch them by skin is called controlling of senses - pratisanlinatä. One should not develop a possessive attitude to what he is seeing, to what he is listening, to what he is smelling, to what he is tasting and to what he is touching. Sense organs are useful, if they are used for spiritual purposes.

One who wants to repent for his mistakes should do so in a straightforward manner like a child. One cannot be truly regretful without having simplicity and purity of the heart. By truly carrying out the right process of präyaschhit, one sheds his unwholesome Karmas, and purifies himself. Therefore, präyaschhit is the austerity for purifying the soul.

 

1.      Vinay (Humility):Vinay denotes humbleness, submissiveness, kindness, courtesy, humility, civility, respect, etc. True meaning of Vinay is absence of ego. There are eight types of ego, and the person with vinay does not have any of them. Vinay saves Jiva from getting bad destinies like hell. Vinay is an internal quality of Jiva. Vinay is considered the root of the religion per the Jain canonical books. Vinay is given the utmost importance in Jainism; for example, it is discussed in the first chapter of Utarädhyayan Sutra. To have adequate vinay is the sign of right character. There are seven types of vinay: 1. vinay for knowledge, 2. vinay for perception, 3. vinay for conduct, 4. vinay of mind, 5. vinay of speech, 6. vinay of body and 7. Vinay for paying homage.

02. Vaiyävrutya (Selfless service)

To serve Sanyami (who practices self-restraint) with devotion and without any selfish motive is called vaiyävrutya. Vinay and vaiyävruttya differ from one another in that the former is a mental act and the latter a bodily one. If one offers right food, clothes, medicines, and other necessities to the Jain ascetics, it is called vaiyävrutya.

There are ten types of people who are considered as deserving vaiyävrutya:
(1) ächärya (chief of the religious order)
(2) upädhyäya (who teaches others),
(3) tapasvin (who performs some great and severe penance),
(4) shaiksha (new ascetic),
(5) glan (ailing ascetic),
(6) gana (group of older ascetics),
(7) kula (group of disciples under one ächärya),
(8) sangha (constituted of Sädhu, Sädhvis, Shrävak and shrävikäs),
(9) Sädhu and
(10) samanojna (who is spiritually equal). Vaiyävrutya - rendering service to the worthy ones is like serving a Tirthankar. That enhances the unity of the sangha, strengthens the religious order, helps the needy and stabilizes the aspirant on the right path. That also creates an atmosphere of mutual help.

03.  Swädhyä (Self-study)

To undertake various practices with a view to acquiring the right knowledge is called swädhyäy or self‑study. Swädhyäy is a potent instrument for shedding Karmas. Swädhyäy also keeps the right knowledge alive for the next generation, and generations to come. Per Jain canonical books, Jain ascetics are required to do swädhyäy for about nine hours a day. If the Jain ascetic is irregular about doing his swädhyäy, then he is not truly a Jain Sädhu. He will drift into gossips, and eventually, will end up doing unwholesome activities. It is essential that Jain ascetics should keep their interest alive, and continue their swädhyäy per Jain canonical books. To acquire knowledge, to render it free from doubt, lucid and ripe and to seek to propagate it ‑all these can be covered in swädhyäy. It has been divided into five subtypes corresponding to the order followed in a course of study.

They are as follows:
(1) To take lessons in the wording or the meaning of a text ‑that is vächanä.
(2) To make inquires to remove doubts or to confirm the understanding ‑that is pruchchhanä.
(3) To correctly repeat the wording of a text that has been learnt ‑that is paravartana (meaning repetition).
(4) To mentally ponder over the wording or the meaning of a text ‑that is anuprekshä. 
(5) To grasp the secret of a text that has been learnt ‑that is dharmopadesha; to preach things religiously is also dharmopadesha.

 

04. Dhyän (Meditation)

To stop the wandering (distractions) of the conscious mind (chitta) and to concentrate it on one thing is called meditation. The concentration can arise from intense attachment, lust, or animosity; or from the search for the truth and from detachment for the worldly affairs. Dhyän is the practice to retire the soul from unnatural activities and to get absorbed into the self. All Tirthankars meditated prior to achieving the perfect knowledge (keval-Jnän). No one has achieved Moksha without mediation.  Dhyän is divided into four categories: i) Ärta Dhyän, ii) Roudra Dhyän, iii) Dharma Dhyän, iv) Shukla Dhyän.

A person possessing a superior type of bone‑structure such as vajrarishabhanäracha, ardhavajrarishabhanäracha and näracha samhanana is capable of practicing the true Dhyän. To have sufficient mental power to perform Dhyän, one has to have sufficient physical power that comes only from these three types of bone-structures. If body power is weak, one will have weaker mental power, and therefore, weaker concentration. This does not mean that others should not meditate. The degree of success will be less for the persons with inferior bone-structure, but the progress will be spiritual, and in the right direction. An endeavor to put a stop to the gross bodily and mental operations is also a Dhyän.

Ärta and Roudra dhyän are the causes of worldly transmigration, are evil‑Dhyän and, therefore, they are to be avoided. On the other hand, dharmya dhyan and shukla dhyan are noble‑dhyän and are worth resorting to.

Ärta Dhyän: Dhyän that relates to distress or pain is called ärta dhyän. There are four causes that produce pain: 1. getting what is not desired. 2. Losing what is desired. 3. Disagreeable situation. And 4. Hankering for material enjoyment...

Roudra Dhyän: There are four subtypes of roudra‑Dhyän corresponding to the above four possiblbilities. He whose heart is cruel or hard is considered roudra. Cruelty or hardness of heart leads to violence, lies, stealing and protecting the possessions by even the foul means.

DharmyaDhyän:There are four types of dharmya Dhyän: (1) äjnäor commandment - Contemplating about the commandment of omniscients and how to get rid of passions. (2) Apäya or misery - Contemplating about the nature of defilements and the resulting misery and unhappiness (3) vipäka or the fruition of Karma - Contemplating about the Karmas and the consequences they yield. (4) Sansthäna or structure of universe - Contemplating about the nature of the universe.

Shukladhyän:There are four subtypes. First two can be performed by the persons who are in eleventh and twelfth gunasthänas, who are versed in Purva texts. However, there are exceptions, because Mäshtushmuni and Marudevi could perform that dhyan even though they werle not well versed in the Purva texts. The last two subtypes of shukla Dhyän can be performed by kevalis (omniscients) who are in the thirteenth or fourteenth gunasthäna. The four subtypes are: 1. Pruthaktvavitarkasavichära, 2. Ekatvavitarka‑nirvichära, 3. Suksmakriyäpratipätin and 4. Vyuparatakriyänivrtti (or Samuchchhinnakriyänivrtti). The first two subtypes of are associated with scriptural knowledge. The first subtype involves transition while the second is devoid of it. In the first type, the practitioner switches his concentration from one form of a substance to another, from a substance to a mode, or from one mode to another or from a meaning to a word or from a word to a meaning or, from one type of Yoga to another. When the practitioner introduces no such change, then the Dhyän is called ekatvavitarka avichära.  Thus first one is dominated by difference and the second one is dominated by constancy. When the meditation involves a subtle bodily Yoga while putting an end to all the remaining Yogas, then this act of concentration is called Sukshmakriyäpratipäti Dhyän. At this stage there proceeds only the subtle bodily activities like inhalation and exhalation, and there is no possibility of a fall from that. When even the subtle bodily activities like inhalation and exhalation cease altogether and the constituent units of the soul become free from all wavering, then the state is called samuchchhinnakriyä‑nivrtti‑Dhyän. In this state, no activity takes place. In the fourth subtype of Dhyän all äsrava and all bandha cease altogether, all Karmas come to the end, and liberation (Moksha) is attained. The last two are also called analambana or devoid of any dependence...

05. Vyutsarga (abandonment of external & internal aspects)

There are two major types: 1. abandonment of external aspects is called Dravya vyutsarga, and 2. abandonment of internal aspects is called bhäv vyutsarga. There are four types of Dravya vyutsarga: 1. abandonment of body (käyotsarga), 2. ganavyutsarga (abandoning the company of other mendicants), 3. upadhi-vyutsarga (abandoning material objects such as clothes, pots, blanket, bench, medicine, etc.) and 4. bhakta-vyutsarga (abandoning the food and drink). There are three types of bhäv-vyutsarga: 1. Kashäy-vyutsarga (overcoming the passions), 2. Sansär-vyutsarga (abandoning the worldly life), 3.Karma-vyutsarga (eradicating Karmas). One has to have bhed-Jnän (vivek-Jnän = discriminatory knowledge that the soul and the body are separate) to be able to exercise vyutsarga.

More one practices these twelve austerities, lighter he becomes in his Karmas. Thus, samvar is the process of stopping the influx of Karmas, and nirjarä is the process of purifying the soul by eradicating the Karmas. These two processes liberate the soul from the cycle of birth and death, and thus, Moksha is achieved. Samvar and nirjarä therefore constitute the pillars of religion.

Other Austerities (Tapasyäs)

There are some other common external austerities. They are:
1) Navkärsi:  One must take food and water forty eight minutes after sunrise. 2) Porsi:  Taking food and water three hours after sunrise.
3) Sädh-porsi:  Taking food and water four hours and thirty minutes after sunrise.
4) Purimuddh: Taking food and water six hours after sunrise.
5) Avadhdh:  Taking food and water eight hours after sunrise.
6) Biyäsan:  Taking food twice a day.
7) Ekäsan:  Taking food only once.
8) Äyambil:  Taking blanches food only once. The food should not have any taste and spices and should be boiled or cooked. Also, one shall not take milk, curds, ghee, oil, fruits and green or raw vegetables.
9) Upaväs:  One must not take any food for almost thirty six hours starting from sunset on the previous day to sunrise the succeeding day. 
a) Tivihär upaväs: One may drink only insentient water during   upaväs. 
b) Chauvihär upaväs: One does not even take water during the upaväs.
10)Tivihär:  After sunset no food or juice shall be taken, but one may take only water until sunrise the next day.
11) Chauvihär: After sunset no food or water is taken until sunrise the next day.
12) Attham:  Upaväs for three consecutive days.

13) Atthai:  Upaväs for eight consecutive days.

14) Mäsakshaman: Consecutive upaväs for one month.

15) Navapad oli:  During every year for 9 days starting from the 6/7th day in the bright fortnight until the full moon day in Ashwin and Chaitra months, one does äyambil. This is repeated for the next four and half years. These äyambils can also be restricted to only one kind of food or grain per day.

16) Other austerities are: varshitap, vardhamän tap, visasthänak tap, etc

6. BANDH (Bondage of Karma)

Process of Bondage

Whenever, we think, talk or do any physical activity, Karman particles are attracted towards the soul and get associated with it. Such Karman particles are then called Karmas. The situations that arise spontaneously without any of our plans.are the outcome of  the Dravya Karmas. If one does not react to that with the sense of craviing or aversion, those Karmas would be dripped off in due course. If however one reacts to that with the sense of anger, ego, deceit or greed, that would attract new Karmas which are called Bhäv Karmas. Such Bhäv Katmas would result in new Dravya Karmas which will in turn give their fruits in due course.   

The bondage  occurs while undrtaking different activities: 1) physically by  killing, hunting, crushing, etc. 2) verbally by abusive or harsh words, gossiping, and/or 3) mentally by thinking bad about some one, and so on.  Moreover we get involved in such activities in three different ways: 1) we may do that ourselves, 2) we ask someone else to do that for us, and/or 3) we encourage someone else who is doing that. Thus in all, there are nine ways in which the bondage can occur. 

The Bondage comprises following four aspects: 1) What Kind of (Nature-Prakriti) Karmas will there be? (What characteristic of the soul will it obstruct?) 2) How many Karma particles would be attached to how many parts of the soul(Quantity-Pradesh)? 3) How long (Duration-Sthiti) would the Karmas stay with the soul? and 4) How intense (Intensity-Anubhäg or Ras) will be the results of these Karmas? The nature and the quantity of Karmas depend on the intensity of physical activities while the duration and the intensity of Karmas depend on the intensity of desires for such activities.

1) Nature Of Bondage (Prakriti): There are eight different types of main Karmas. Depending upon our activities of our mind, speech and body, we will acquire one or more of these eight  Karmas. Normally we (Sansäri Jivas) beget seven (eight only  once in a life-time) types every moment. The main eight  Karmas are: 1) Knowledge-Obscuring, Jnänävarniya Karma,

2) Perception-Obscuring, Darshanävarniya Karma,

3) Obstructive, Antaräy Karma,

4) Deluding (giving rise to wrong perception and wrong conduct), Mohniya Karma,

5) Situation conferring, Vedniya Karma,

6) Body-Making, Näm Karma,

7) Status-determining, Gotra Karma and 

8) Age-Determining, Äyushya Karma.

These Karmas are grouped in two categories, 1) Destructive or Ghäti Karmas and 2) Non-destructive or Aghäti Karmas. Here, Ghät means hurting or defiling. The Karmas that defile the nature of the Soul are called  Ghäti Karmas, while, those that do not defile the soul, but affect the body, are called Aghäti Karmas.

Ghäti Karmas are:

1) Knowledge-Obscuring, Jnänävarniya,

2) Perception-Obscuring, Darshnavarniya,

3) Obstructive, Antaräy and

4) Deluding Karmas, Mohniya. Aghäti Karmas are:

5) Situation conferring, Vedaniya,

6) Body-Making, Näm,

7) Status-determining, Gotra and 8) Age-Determining Karmas, Äyushya.

2) Quantity Of Bondage (Pradesh): When the intensity of our activities is low, we acquire milder Karmas  but if the  intensity is high, we acquire stronger Karmas..

Karman particles have 2 odors, 5 colors, 5 tastes and only 4 touches (cold, warm, sticky and dry) instead of 8 touches that the physical body has. The soul accumulates the Karma in its own Pradesha, They do not reside outside the soul. The quantity of eight main Karmas differ from each other. Age-Determining, Äyushya Karma receives the smallest quantity. Body-Making, Näm Karma and Status-determining, Gotra Karma receive equal and the next smallest quantity. Knowledge-Obscuring, Jnänävaraniya Karma, Perception-Obscuring, Darshanävaraniya Karma and Obstructive, Antaräy Karma; all three receive equal but more quantity than the above mentioned Karmas and less than the remaining Karmas.  Deluding (belief and conduct obstructing), Mohniya Karma receives more  quantity than previously mentioned Karmas and less than the remaining Karma.  Situation conferring, Vedniya Karma receives the largest quantity.

3) Duration Of Karma Bondage (Sthiti): How long the Karma will stay associated with the soul is determined by the quality  of our passions at the time of our activities. If our desire for the activity is mild then the duration of bondage would be of a shorter period. If our desire is stronger then the duration of bondage would be of a longer period. The minimum time could be a fraction of a second and the maximum  could be of innumerable years (70 kroda-krodi sägaropam).

Knowledge-Obscuring, Jnänävarniya, Perception-Obscuring, Darshnavarniya and Obstructive, Antaräy: Maximum duration - 30 kkso (kroda-krodi sägaropam) and minimum duration - antarmuharta (less than 48 minutes). Deluding Karmas, Mohniya: Maximum duration - 40 kkso and minimum duration - antarmuharta.  Situation conferring, Vedniya: Maximum duration - 30 kkso and minimum duration - 12 antarmuhartas. Body-Making, Näm and  Status-determining, Gotra: 30 kkso and minimum duration - 8 antarmuhartas And Age-Determining Karmas, Äyushya:  Maximum duration -  33 so (sägaropam) and minimum duration - 256 ävalikas.

4) Intensity  (Anubhäg, Ras) Of Results:  How intense would be the results of Karmas at the time of maturity is decided by the severity of our passions at the time of our activities. If our passions are slight then it would cause slight impact and if our passions are severe then it would cause severe impact.

 

When the Karmas get attached to the soul, they may be attached very loose or very tight. There are four types: 1) Loose (Sprusta or Sithil; ): In this case, Karmas are attached to the soul like a loose knot that can easily be untied. 2) Tight (Baddha or Gadha) In this case,  Karmas are attached to the soul like a tight knot that can be loosened with some efforts.  3) Nidhatta (Tighter): In this case, Karmas are attached to the soul like a very tight knot that can be loosened by very strong efforts like Tapascharya and 4) Nikachit (Tightest): In this case, Karmas are so tightly attached to the soul that they cannot be shed off by any effort except by bearing the consequences.

ce�/ t� С subtype of Dhyän all äsrava and all bandha cease altogether, all Karmas come to the end, and liberation(Moksha) is attained. The last two are also called analambana or devoid of any dependence..

12.  Vyutsarga (abandonment of external & internal aspects): There are two major types: 1. abandonment of external aspects is called Dravya vyutsarga, and 2. abandonment of internal aspects is called bhäv vyutsarga. There are four types of Dravya vyutsarga: 1. abandonment of body (käyotsarga), 2. ganavyutsarga (abandoning the company of other mendicants), 3. upadhi-vyutsarga (abandoning material objects such as clothes, pots, blanket, bench, medicine, etc.) and 4. bhakta-vyutsarga (abandoning the food and drink). There are three types of bhäv-vyutsarga: 1. Kashäy-vyutsarga (overcoming the passions), 2. Sansär-vyutsarga (abandoning the worldly life), 3.Karma-vyutsarga (eradicating Karmas). One has to have bhed-Jnän (vivek-Jnän = discriminatory knowledge that the soul and the body are separate) to be able to exercise vyutsarga.

More one practices these twelve austerities, lighter he becomes in his Karmas. Thus, samvar is the process of stopping the influx of Karmas, and nirjarä is the process of purifying the soul by eradicating the Karmas. These two processes liberate the soul from the cycle of birth and death, and thus, Moksha is achieved. Samvar and nirjarä therefore constitute the pillars of religion.

There are main four degrees of intensity corresponding to the four Kashäy - Anantänubandhi Kashäy,  Apratyäkhyäni Kashäy,  Pratyäkhyäni Kashäy and  Sanjwalan Kashäy. 

  Anantänubandhi Apratyäkhyäna Pratyäkhyäna Sanjwalan
anger (krodh) line in rock line in earth line in sand line in water
pride (män) stone pillar Bone piece of wood cane
deceit(mäyä ) bamboo root horn of a ram urine of cow shavings of wood
greed (lobha) fast color grease mud water color

Souls - Extrovert, Introvert & Supreme

In order to understand, the karmic bondage and Moksha (liberation), we need to understand the three stages of the soul. By the use of the chart, we will make an attempt to understand the karmic bondage, and how one can pursue the path of liberation?

Bahirätmä: In this state, the soul has unwholesome inner aspects (bhäv = mental reflections). Antarätmä  is the stage of wholesome inner aspects, and Paramätmä is the purified state of the soul. Bahirätmä has eight unwholesome Karmas: 1. knowledge obscuring, 2. perception obscuring, 3. pain causing, 4. deluding, 5.unwholesome life-span determining, 6. unwholesome body determining, 7. lower status determining, and 8. obstructive. Every Karma has different duration, different quantity and different intensity. Intensity is the prime constituent of the Karma. Bahirätmä acquires Karma with two types of intensity, tightest (nikächit) and tighter (nidhati).  In nidhati,  one can endeavor to change its duration and intensity but cannot change its quantity and nature. In nikächit, one cannot change its duration, intensity, quantity and nature. He has to bear the fruits of this type of Karma.

Antarätmä: Antarätmä mostly binds wholesome Karmas like happiness causing, wholesome life-span determining, wholesome body determining and high status determining Karmas. Antarätmä is also under the influence of knowledge obscuring, perception obscuring, deluding and obstructive Karmas but the intensity is milder than the intensity of  Bahirätmä.

Antarätmä has two types of intensity that cause loose (sprushta) and tight (baddha) karmic bondage.  Sprushta means the Karmas having a dry association with the soul - They just touch the soul. Sprushta Karma is like a needle with a thread through its hole so that it can be picked up easily. Baddha means the Karmas having tight bondage with the soul. Baddha  Karma is like loose needle without thread - rather difficult to find.

Paramätmä: The pure state of the soul is known as Paramätmä. In this state, there is no association with Karmas. Without Karmas and without the cycle of birth and death, the state of the soul is pure, liberated and supreme. Liberated soul is always absorbed in the undisturbed and unlimited joy.

Punya and Päp (Wholesome Karma and unwholesome Karma)

PUNYA (Wholesome Karma)

“Karma is the cause of merit (Punya) and demerit (PÄP); good thoughts give rise to merit while evil thoughts to demerit. Those who are possessed of subdued passions have clean mental states; those with intense passions will have unclean mental states.”

It all depends on the quality of one’s inner aspects (Bhäv). If his Bhäv is wholesome, he will earn Punya, and if his Bhäv is unwholesome, he will acquire PÄP. Negative contemplation is PÄP, and positive contemplation is Punya.

“Always speak words which are dear to others, even those wicked men who use harsh words ought to be forgiven; one must take the best from all people - these are illustrative of persons possessed of subdued passions.”

To speak that is likable to others is the first characteristic of the person who has subdued passions. There are two types of speeches - one that is like a pair of scissors, and the second one is like a needle. Harsh speech is like a pair of scissors, and kind speech is like a needle. As a pair of scissors cuts a piece of cloth, the harsh speech hurts others. And as a needle joins two pieces of clothes, the kind speech makes others feel good. One who speaks gently and kindly is in the state of subdued passions.

The second characteristic of the person with subdued passions is that he forgives the individual who speaks harsh and unkind words to him. To react to the individual who speaks harsh is the characteristic of an ignorant (ajnäni). It is spiritual  to  forgive the individual who speaks harsh words. To have forgiving nature is also a characteristic of the person with subdued passions. One of the fruits of our spiritual practice is to have forgiving  nature.

The third characteristic of the person with subdued passions is that he adopts good qualities (guna) of others. There is no bad guy who does not have good qualities, and there is no good guy who does not have a bad quality.  The question is of our perception,- how do we see others? If we are used to seeing others positively, then we will notice their good qualities, and if we are seeing them negatively, then we will notice their bad qualities.

Many people praise themselves, and that is wrong. The person who praises himself has an intensive ego. One who goes for his name and fame, is the person with intensive passions.  One usually reflects out his own attributes. If he is full of faults, he will notice faults in others. Contrary to this, if one has good qualities, he will notice good qualities even in a devil.  One who maintains the feeling of revenge (retaliation,  retribution, reprisal or vengeance) for a long time is the person of intensive passions. Attitude of revenge is like a hard knot that is difficult to untie.

What is Punya?

Wholesome Karma is Punya. When one acquires wholesome Karmas.it is called Punya.  One attains the material comforts because of his Punya. But Punya does not bring the spiritual happiness. One can get the happiness of heaven because of his Punya but not the happiness of Moksha. One attains the Moksha by eradicating both, PÄP and Punya.

There are nine causes mentioned in Sthänäng Sutra (a Jain Ägam) that result in Punya. Five of them are related to providing the necessities to the Jain ascetics. Offering of food, water, shelter, bed, and clothes to Jain ascetics (Sanyami - one who practices self-restraints) are acts of Punya. Such offerings are helpful to those  who have resorted to the spiritual path. Good thoughts, words (speech) and physical activities are also causes of Punya. Also paying spiritual homage to panch pamesthi [five supreme entities of arihantas, Siddhas, Ächäryas, upädhyäyas and Sädhus) is the cause for earning Punya. The term adopted by most Ächäryas is offerings to “right people” (supätra). Right people include Jain ascetics as well as the householders who are practicing self-restraints, and are pursuing the path of liberation, and are in need of help. Some Ächäryas interpret that there is no restriction against helping other living beings for the purpose of compassion (Jiva-dayä, karunä and anukampä), because our Tirthankars have preached about showing compassion to all living beings. Before initiation (dikshä), Tirthankars donate for one year to all living beings without becoming selective.

 

Causes of Punya

There are following nine aspects that lead to Punya :

1.      Anna-punya: Offering of innocent,  non-sentient, pure and vegetarian foods,.

2.      Pän-punya: Offering of non-sentient and pure water;.

3.      Layan-punya: Offering shelter;

4.      Shayan-punya: Offering bed;.

5.      Vastra-punya: Offering clothes;.

6.      Man-punya: Good thinking;.

7.      Vachan-punya: Good, kind words;

8.      Käy-punya: Virtuous, helpful activities;.

9.      Namaskär-punya: Paying homage to panch-parmesthi,.

Päp (Unwholesome Karma)

Unwholesome Karma is PÄP. Gauam Swämi asked Mahävir Swämi, “Bhante ! How can one be free from PÄP?”

Mahävir Swämi replied, “Gautam ! There are three ways to get freed from PÄP: 1) Knowledge of previous lives, 2) knowledge of the mystery behind the cycle of birth and death and 3) knowledge of what is conscious mind (Chitta) and how to purify it?”

1. Knowledge of Previous Lives: If one remembers what happened in his previous lives, he will automatically take the path of punya and will abandon the path of PÄP. If we do not have the knowledge of our previous life, it is difficult to abandon the wrong path. The person with the knowledge of previous life, understands the mystery behind attaining the human life. He understands that it requires a great amount of spiritual efforts to attain the human life. He thinks, “I do not want to waste my human life by indulging in wrong activities. I need to choose the right path.” Knowledge of previous lives is called “Jäti-smaran Jnän”.

2. Knowledge of the Mystery Behind the Cycle of Birth and Death: One will become very careful, if he finds out the cause for the cycle of birth and death. He is reborn in a good or a state because of his own good or bad Karmas. He realizes, “My Karma is the reason why I am trapped in the cycle of birth and death.” This realization makes one to stop undesirable activities and, makes him conscious of the importance of human life

3. Knowing the Causes that Impurity  the Conscious Mind (Chitta): If one figures out why his conscious mind has become impure, and how he can purify it then he automatically begins to free himself from the sinful activities. Unnecessary and sinful activities stain the Chitta, while practicing as per true religion purifies it.

Causes of Päp

There are eighteen causes of PÄP:

 1.      Pranätipät (Violence or Himsä): Pranätipät means to injure one or more of the  ten präns (vitalities) of a living being. Great Ächärya Umäswäti defines - “pramatt yogät prän vyayropanam Himsä.”  To injure or to kill a living being because of invigilance or  ignorance (Pramäd) is Himsä. One cannot find peace by pursuing a course of violence. Carelessness itself amounts to Himsä.

 

Every living being wants to live, and no one wants to die. Hurting or killing any living beings by physical means, words or in thoughts is called Himsä. Lord Mahavir has laid down that one should behave the way he likes the others to behave towards him. He has said that as we like to live comfortably, all other beings too like to lead comfortable life. The message is ‘Live and let live’. One should try to provide comfort and security to others. If we cause suffering or unhappiness to others or kill someone, we commit sin and we acquire Päp. Such Päp brings unhappiness in our life or in our future lives. Ahimsä holds the key position in the whole scheme of the ethical discipline. Giving protection to living beings is the true religion. The true religion is based on compassion. Compassion is the root of the tree in the form of religion. For householders, abstaining from intentionally injuring mobile living beings, through mind, words or body, in any of the two ways‑directly or through somebody is called sthul-pranätipat-virmanvrata or Ahimsänuvrata.. One who inflicts injury to living beings, with passion  or carelessness is guilty of Himsä.

 

Himsä is also marked in two forms: Sukshma Himsä‑taking life of any living being and Sthula Himsä‑taking life of living beings with two senses and onwards, which are also known as trasa (mobile) Jivas.  The first is obligatory for the monk and the second is for the householder. The householder is also expected to abstain from killing or injuring living beings even with one sense (ekendriyas), where possible. There are two types of Himsä: 1. inherent in one's occupation and 2. unrelated to one's occupation . The Himsä related to one’s profession is further divided into three categories: (1) Udyami, (2) Grihärambhi and (3) Virodhi. (1)  The householder, who has to maintain himself and his family, has necessity to get involved in some occupation and his occupation may involve Himsä.  Therefore,  occupations that involve less form of Himsä are advised to be undertaken. (2) Some kind of Himsä is  involved while carrying out the manifold domestic duties and other obligations.  Preparation of food, use of water in bathing and washing clothes, keeping of cattle, maintenance of gardens, cutting fruits and flowers, etc. are some of such instances; and whatever Himsä is involved in such household obligations is permissible; otherwise normal course of life becomes impossible. (3) It is committed generally in self‑defense or in the protection of persons or property of members of the family, relatives or friends. In the ordinary course of life, one has to defend himself from thieves, robbers or enemies in battles. If one is a soldier, defense of his country is an obligatory duty; but he is not expected to indulge in unnecessary Himsä as a matter of hostility or revenge.

 

Himsä can also be defined as Bhav Himsä and Dravya Himsä: 1. bhäva‑Himsä‑denotes the intention to cause injury and 2. Dravya‑Himsädenotes causing actual injury. Intention to commit, or attempt to commit is a form of Himsäwhether it is actually carried out or not.

 

2.      Mrushäväd: means to speak lies. To tell a lie is PÄP . Lying is due to some form of passions; therefore, all lying is forbidden unless the truth is likely to result in greater Himsä. Spreading unkind rumors, character assassination,  misguiding deliberately, forgery, causing thoughtless defamation, using harsh language, etc. have to be avoided. Honesty and reliability  of Jain businessmen was well known. One time more than 50% of the money transaction passed through their hands. The main reason of their success was  their truthfulness. Like poetry, it is difficult to define “truth” though its nature can be described and understood. The words that inflict injury to living beings amounts to falsehood. But the truth may have to be avoided at times, if it likely to cause loss of any life.

 

Any statement made through Pramäd(careless activity of body, mind or speech) is false‑hood. The falsehood is of four kinds: 1. Denying the existence of a thing with reference to its position, time and nature, when it actually exists. 2. Asserting the existence of a thing with reference to its position, time and place, when it does not exist at all. 3. Representation of an existing thing as something different from what it really is. 4. Utterance of condemnable, sinful or disagreeable words. Back‑biting, harsh, unbecoming, non‑sensical or unethical speech is condemnable. That kind of speech which incites another to engage in piercing, cutting, beating etc., or which is likely to lead to destruction of life is sinful. The speech causing uneasiness, pain, hostility, misery or anguish etc., has to be forbidden.

 

3.      Adattädän: Adattädän means stealing. To take something which is not given is adattädän. Stealing covers what is not granted by its owner, The sense of stealing arises from the greed (lobha) and it causes Himsä. Non-stealing includes the maintenance of quality, not buying stolen goods, not cheating on taxes, divulging confidences (vishvashaghät), etc. It also includes not to disclose someone's secrets. The person who steals causes pain to one whom he deprives of the objects and such deprivation may bring inconvenience, trouble and even death. Seizing the property of another is like depriving him of his vitalities, for all objects belonging to one are his external vitalities. Hence theft is Himsä. Taking with intent to steal objects, even of such things as grass, which are in the possession of others is stealing. If we think deeply, accumulation of material objects beyond our necessities such as food, clothes and shelter also amounts to adattädän. If one accumulates more than his needs, he deprives others from getting their necessities.

 

4.      Maithun means unchastity or engaging in sensuous pleasure. Forbidden for householders are sexual contact with unmarried men and women and widowers, keeping a mistress or going to a prostitute, gossiping about sex or making sexually provocative gestures, leaving one's own children and celebrating the marriages of others, wearing indecent dress and decorations; and taking intoxicating drugs. No. one should have extramarital or premarital relationship, and even within the married life it is advisable to observe maximum possible restraint.

 

5.      Parigraha means possessiveness or over collection of worldly objects.  Greed is the root‑cause of accumulation. For the householder absolute renunciation of parigraha is not possible; he should set limits to its acquisition, possession and protection. Bhagavän Mahävir has explained two types of parigrahas: external possessions and internal possessions. There are ten types of external possessions: (1) kshetra -land or fields, (2) västu -houses, (3) hiranya -gold coins, (4) suvarna -gold, (5) dhana -wealth, (6) dhänya -grains (7) dwipad -servants (8) chatushpad - animals (9) kupya -clothes (10) shayyäsana - beds and furniture.  There are fourteen internal possessions: (1) Mithyätva -false belief , (2) krodha - anger , (3) män - ego, (4) mäyä - deceit , (5) lobha - greed, (6) häsya -laughter for joke or out of contempt (7) rati - pleasure (8) arati -dejection (9) bhaya -fear (10) shoka -sorrow (11) jugupsa -disgust 12) purushved - urge to have sex with female (13) strived - urge to have sex with male, and (14) napunsakaved ‑urge to have sex with both, male and female. Bhagavän Mahävir said, “Muchchhäpariggaho vruto.” - Attachment is the possession (parigraha). Attachments make the soul heavier with Karmas.

 

6.      Krodha means anger. Anger is the first of four passions (Kashäy). Spiritually, anger hurts the person who shows it. Anger can become a reason for one’s destruction. Because of the anger, one is unable to maintain the balance of mind. Anger destroys  friendships and develops rivalry. Anger dissolves the fabrics of the family life. Anger adversely affects health - causes adverse effects on brain, heart, etc. Because of anger, one’s life becomes horrible. Contrary to this, one can produce lots of positive results by the application of forgiveness, love and cooperation.

 

7.      Män means ego - meaning the feeling of “I am something.” This is the second of the four passions (Kashäy). It is difficult for one to overcome his ego. Because of the ego, our history is full of blood. Today’s political problems and violence are because of egotism. Egotism is one of the higher päps. (One’s ego can be overcome by cultivating the sense of humbleness.)

 

8.      Mäyä means deceit. There are four factors which lead to getting human life. One of them is straightforwardness (saralatä). One, who has unity of his thinking, speaking and deeds (he does what he says and he says what he thinks), is a straightforward person. This kind of person is well respected by all. Because of his straightforwardness, his soul becomes lighter as he acquires less amount of Karmas.

 

9.      Lobha means greed. Greed is the father of all sins (and the other three passions). Four passions: anger, greed, ego, and deceit (AGED), are the main culprits for the cycle of birth and death. They are difficult to be controlled. If one conquers these four, then he can attain Moksha. One acquires lot of Karmas because of his greed. Under the influence of greed, one forgets his duties, laws, ethics, morale, etc. Subtle level of greed  exists even in the tenth gunsthäna. That’s why it is said, “loho savva vinäsano” - greed destroys all merits.

 

10.  Räg means attachment. One of the most popular words used in the Jainism is “vitaräg” - one who has conquered räg. But there is no word like “vitdvesha” - one who has conquered aversion. Because it is difficult to conquer “attachment” (räg). It is even difficult to identify räg. It is like a covered well, one can easily be cheated. This can be controlled by cultivating the sense of detachment..

11.  Dvesha means aversion. It includes hatred, enmity, jealousy etc. Where there is räg, there is dvesha. One cannot tolerate the prosperity of his neighbors or his friends. Because of jealousy, one does not necessarily bring bad things to others, but he certainly spoils his own life. One’s hatred does more harm to his own soul. Attachment or hatred occurs to us almost every moment. If somebody does good to us, we like him and if somebody does not do what we like, we tend to hate him. We can overcome these two by cultivating the sense of equanimity in all situations, and we must if we want to attain liberation. We should have love and amity for all. Even if someone happens to be wicked we should show compassion instead of hatred.

12.  Kalah means dispute or quarrel. Quarrel is more connected with the tongue. When we do not restrain what we talk, we add fuel to fire - we give momentum to quarrel. Because of quarrel, we have wars.. Because of quarrel, we invite medical problems such as blood pressure, ulcer, etc. Not only we hurt ourselves, we also hurt our dear ones. Many people quarrel for trivial matter. Sometimes it may seem that we win by fighting, but we happen to lose in the long run. One should therefore develop amity and friendliness.

13.  Abhyäkhyän means accusation or incrimination. Because of jealousy, we put false accusation on others. This is one of the dangerous päps. Abhyäkhyän may get innocent people in trouble. Moreover there is always a possibility to get in trouble when the truth comes to light. One should therefore try to avoid laying accusations and try to understand the truth of the matter.

 

14.  Paishunya means calumny or slandering. To slander someone in his absence is  Paishunya. It is a bad habit to talk behind some one’s back or to spread rumor. Such habit leads to unnecessary friction and quarrels. This kind of habits is no good. Instead of indulging in gossip, one should cultivate the habit of appreciating others.

15.  Par-pariväd means to criticize someone in his presence.

16.  Rati-arati means not to pursue permanent happiness through self-restraint and to pursue temporary happiness.

17.  Mäyä-mrushä means to lie with the intent of cheating. This binds double unwholesome Karmas - one for lying and one for deceit. This type of activities results in deluding (Mohaniya) Karma. People do not like to keep friendship with such persons. Nobody would trust them. One should be truthful and straightforward towards others.

18.  Mithyätva shalya means false faith or to trust false god or wrong guru or wrong religion. This is the last but the most dangerous unwholesome activity. False faith is the root cause of the wandering from one life to another.

Practical & Realistic Aspects of Punya and Päp

From the practical point of view, people prefer punya to PÄP, and therefore, engage themselves in such acts and thoughts that bring in punya for the following reasons: (1) Good activities bring  punya, and bad activities  PÄP.

(2) Happy and comfortable situations like handsome and strong or beautiful and graceful body, good health, attractive and loving spouse, children to be proud of, wealth, amenities, to be born in higher family, longer life-span, etc. are due to punya. Unwholesome Karmas on the other hand would result in unhappy and miserable situations like ugliness, illness, quarrelsome and wicked spouse, issuelessness or vicious issues, poverty, to be born in lower family, shorter life-span, and the destructive Ghäti) Karmas.

(3) Fruit of punya is pleasure and the fruit of  PÄP is pain.

From the realistic point of view, both punya and PÄP lead the soul further into the Sansär because: (1) Both are caused by impure activities of the soul, (2) Both are karmic material in nature, (3) Fruition of both is harmful to the real happiness of soul and (4) Both lead towards the path of bondage.

As long as soul is embodied, it does indulge in some or other activity. This activity may be physical or mental or both. It is possible that a person may refrain from physical activity for some time. His mental apparatus however never rests. It functions even when he sleeps. Every activity involves Karma and he has to bear consequences thereof sooner or later. Because of ever presence of the Karmas (kärman body), the subtle vibration of the soul creates an adhyavasäy (primal drive - sub-conscious mind), that affects the psychic colors (leshyä). These psychic colors depending upon its nature, good or bad, generate passionate thoughts that may translate in good or bad activities. These activities are responsible for influx and bondage of good or bad of Karmas. Good as well bad bondage of Karmas hinder the purity and freedom of soul. Punya bondage is like hand-cuffs made of gold and the PÄP bondage is like iron hand-cuffs, causing the soul to wander in the cycle of birth and death, because fruits of good or bad Karmas have to be born. Therefore, a true believer should treat  punya and PÄP as an obstruction to attaining Moksha, the path of liberation, and true nature of the soul. Thus he should always be absorbed in the “self” (endeavor for the activities that stop and eradicate Karmas). However, when Jiva is in the lower spiritual stages (gunasthän), long-continued self-absorption is not possible. That time, he should resort to Punya - good deeds, such as, devotion to punch parmesthi, services to Jain ascetics,  and study of scriptures in order to keep away Pramäd. However, he should continue his efforts to attain the status of self-absorption.

Four Fold Combinations of Punya & Päp

Concepts of Punya and Päp are more or less identical in most of the religions. The latter concept is however more subtly treated by Indian philosophies, They take into consideration not only the actual act but also the intention behind it. They are unanimous in adoring the meritorious intentions and activities and in condemning the sinful ones. In a major respect however Jainism differs from others in its approach to Punya or meritorious activities. One may obtain material happiness and comforts as a result of punya, but what after that? Material happiness does come to an end and comfortable situations do not last forever. One has therefore to undergo miseries at the expiration of punya Karmas, unless he has earned other punya Karmas meanwhile. This earning of new punya Karma while enjoying the fruits of earlier ones is known in Jain terminology as Punyänubandhi Punya or wholesome Karmas motivating further wholesome activities.

Very few persons fall within the category of Punyänubandhi Punya, because most of the persons get infatuated by the happiness and comforts. By virtue of the infatuation they indulge in unwholesome activities. This type of Punya is known as Päpänubandhi Punya or wholesome Karmas leading to unwholesome ones. Misery is thus destined for them in the near future. How can one avoid this situation? If the objective is to attain liberation, one has to avoid all sorts of Karmas. There is no other alternative. In ultimate analysis, Jainism therefore lays down avoidance of wholesome Karmas as well.

Päp Karmas or unwholesome Karmas are also considered of two types. As consequence of operative PÄP Karmas,  a person does undergo varying degrees of miseries. If however that person realizes that his miseries are the consequence of his previous unwholesome Karmas, he may like to stay unaffected and bear the miseries with a sense of detachment and objectivity. He may therefore undergo the pain of the miseries with equanimity and meanwhile try to undertake the best possible activities. This attitude would earn to him Punyas. His operative Karmas are therefore known as Punyänubandhi Päp or unwholesome Karmas motivating wholesome activities.

 

On the other hand, most of the people undergoing miseries blame someone else or some extraneous factors for causing the miseries. They therefore indulge in anger, jealousy, enmity etc. and react violently or wrongly to the persons whom they consider the cause  of their pain and miseries. Thus they  acquire new unwholesome Karmas or Päp. The current Päp Karmas of such persons are therefore known as Päpnubandhi PÄP or unwholesome Karmas leading to further unwholesome Karmas.

Preference of Punya Over Päp

The wholesome as well as unwholesome Karmas cause bondage to which soul gets chained. Both of them come in the way of soul’s liberation and are to be avoided as such. This can be done by cultivating sense of detachment in all possible situations, favorable as well as unfavorable. No situation lasts forever and every conceivable situation comes to an end sooner or later. Why then get infatuated or feel miserable in a situation which is ephemeral? If a person stays tuned to such detached attitude and maintains equanimity, he does not attract new Karmas. His earlier Karmas would steadily drip off as he bears their consequences. In due course he would therefore shake off all Karmas . As such, he proceeds on the path of liberation. Unfortunately however it is not possible for a worldly soul to stay continuously tuned to its true nature very long. The Tirthankars have stated that no one can continuously concentrate on any object for more than two ghadies or 48 minutes. Beyond that time the attention of the aspirant gets diverted. Thus after staying tuned to true nature, the attention reverts to other aspects. During periods of such reversals a person may better be involved in wholesome activities instead of indulging in unwholesome ones. Therein lies the preference of punya over päp

“Karma is the cause of merit (Punya) and demerit (PÄP); good thoughts give rise to merit while evil thoughts to demerit. Those who are possessed of subdued passions have clean mental states; those with intense passions will have unclean mental states.”

It all depends on the quality of one’s inner aspects (Bhäv). If his Bhäv is wholesome, he will earn Punya, and if his Bhäv is unwholesome, he will acquire PÄP. Negative contemplation is PÄP, and positive contemplation is Punya.

“Always speak words which are dear to others, even those wicked men who use harsh words ought to be forgiven; one must take the best from all people - these are illustrative of persons possessed of subdued passions.”

To speak that is likable to others is the first characteristic of the person who has subdued passions. There are two types of speeches - one that is like a pair of scissors, and the second one is like a needle. Harsh speech is like a pair of scissors, and kind speech is like a needle. As a pair of scissors cuts a piece of cloth, the harsh speech hurts others. And as a needle joins two pieces of clothes, the kind speech makes others feel good. One who speaks gently and kindly is in the state of subdued passions.

The second characteristic of the person with subdued passions is that he forgives the individual who speaks harsh and unkind words to him. To react to the individual who speaks harsh is the characteristic of an ignorant (ajnäni). It is spiritual  to  forgive the individual who speaks harsh words. To have forgiving nature is also a characteristic of the person with subdued passions. One of the fruits of our spiritual practice is to have forgiving  nature.

The third characteristic of the person with subdued passions is that he adopts good qualities (guna) of others. There is no bad guy who does not have good qualities, and there is no good guy who does not have a bad quality.  The question is of our perception,- how do we see others? If we are used to seeing others positively, then we will notice their good qualities, and if we are seeing them negatively, then we will notice their bad qualities.

Many people praise themselves, and that is wrong. The person who praises himself has an intensive ego. One who goes for his name and fame, is the person with intensive passions.  One usually reflects out his own attributes. If he is full of faults, he will notice faults in others. Contrary to this, if one has good qualities, he will notice good qualities even in a devil.  One who maintains the feeling of revenge (retaliation,  retribution, reprisal or vengeance) for a long time is the person of intensive passions. Attitude of revenge is like a hard knot that is difficult to untie.

If all the holes of a boat are plugged, no water enters; similarly; when one stops all the activities leading to äsrav like mithyättva, etc., he prevents the influx of Karmas. The process of stopping the influx is the best device for a living being. Äsrav is the problem, and samvar is the solution. Äsrav is the state of sleepiness, and samvar is the state of alertness. Äsrav takes Jiva to a lower level, and samvar takes the Jiva to a higher level. Samvar is the right thing to do; it is the right path for spiritual progress.

Every worldly soul happens to be confined (not free). The imprisonment is due to the bondage of Karma (bandha). To be free, Jiva has to eradicate the Karmas he is bound by. The process of eradicating the Karmas is called Nirjarä. The word Nirjarä means to fall off. It denotes dripping off, destruction, or removal of Karmas from the soul. Inflow of Karma is due to äsrav, the stoppage of the inflow is due to samvar and the eradication of Karma is due to nirjarä.  Jiva can shed the Karmas and purify his soul with the help of austerities.

Sakäm Nirjarä & Akäm Nirjarä

Karmas are shed in two ways: 1) forcing the process of eradication by special self-efforts, which is called sakäm nirjarä, and 2) eradication without self-efforts is called akäm nirjarä. When Karmas are brought to maturity ahead off their time by special efforts with a view to eradicate them prematurely, it is called sakäm nirjarä. When Karmas mature and drip off in  due course, it is called akäm nirjarä. By resorting to  Yoga or austerities, one can shed his Karmas and also earn punya. But the purposeshould be nirjarä, not to earn  punya.

External Types of Nirjarä

There are twelve types of austerities(tap), of which six are external and six are internal.. The external Tap involves enduring hardships Such Tap is observed for developing   spiritual  capabilities. The following are the six types of external tap:

1.  Anashan (fasting)

Anashan  is derived from Ashan which means to eat. The prefix an  givea negative connotation. Anashan therefore means not to eat. It conveys renouncing of food, water, etc. for a day or days or for the remaining lifetime. This  is  physical Anashan. One can combine the physical anashan with bhäv anashan by exercising total control of the inner desires for a short or a long time. Anashan for a day or days is called fasting, and Anashan for the rest of the life is called santhäro. When one’s death is imminent in next few days, he undertakes several vows including fasting so as to have the remaining time spent spiritually. This process is called santhäro. Santhäro is the art of dying. After undertaking the santhäro, one fasts peacefully, forgives everyone, asks for forgiveness for all his mistakes that he might have committed knowingly or unknowingly, and gets absorbed in the serene recitation of panch parmesthi.   His fasting can go on for  several days till his soul leaves the body peacefully.

2.  Unodari (Partial Fasting)

Unodari is made of two words - una and udar. Una means somewhat less and udar means stomach. To eat less than the normal diet is called unodari. The deeper meaning of unodari is to practice more self-restraints (Sanyam) by reducing unwholesome activities.

One can have many negative emotions that can lead him to wrong path. Therefore, it is important  that one not only reduces his normal diet but also reduces his passions. By reducing the intake of the food and controlling the passions, one not only gains physically, but also benefits mentally, emotionally and spiritually. Unodary of food and passions keeps Jiva healthy and keeps away from doctor and diseases, but  most importantly, it strengthens the spirituality.

3. Vruti-sankshep (Bhikshächari or Limiting Food Items)

This is the third type of nirjarä, which is for developing the willpower. In this type of austerity, one takes abhigraha (makes some resolution). This type of austerity is mostly carried out by the Jain ascetics. One may also take abhigraha on the day of terminating the austerities.. There are four types of abhigrahas - 1. Material (Dravya) - To have pre-determination of having certain items  is called Dravya abhigraha. 2. Area (kshetra) - To take food at a specific location is called kshetra abhigraha,  3. Time (käl) - To fix a specific time is called käl abhigraha and 4. Mode (bhäv) - To get the food only  from  a particular individual or a certain type of person  is called bhäv abhigraha.

Mahävir Bhagawän had undertaken an Abhigraha when he was yet to attain the perfect knowledge. It was the twelfth year of his spiritual pursuit.  He was continually meditating and observing severe austerities. . once he set up apparently improbable stipulations for accepting food.  He vowed that he would accept food only if soaked black peas were offered to him from a winnower, by a princess in chains, with shaved head, who had fasted for three days and who had tears flowing from her eyes.  How all these conditions can be fulfilled at one time ?

For months he used to go for alms and came back without food because his stipulations could not be fulfilled.  But how the fate could allow so great a saint to die for want of food ?  The fate had brought apparent havoc on Chandanbala as if to enable her to fulfill the divine mission of terminating six months’ fasts of Lord Mahavir!

So the Lord happened to come for alms where Chandanbala was thinking to offer food to some Muni.  He saw all his stipulations coming true. There was a princess in chains with cleaned shaven head, having fasted for three days, offering black peas from winnowing pan.  Chandanbala was happy to see the great ascetic in front of her and cheerfully offered the peas.  For Lord this was the right situation for accepting food.  But nay, where were the tears?  He declined the offer and turned back.

Chandanbala felt intensely miserable that the sage did not accept her food.  She started crying and tears began to roll down her eyes as she repeatedly entreated the great ascetic to accept her humble offer.  The Lord looked back and saw the tears rolling down her cheeks.  Now all his hard stipulations were fulfilling and he willingly accepted the food offered by her.

4. Ras-tyäg (Limiting Tasty Food)

This is the fourth type of nirjarä. It involves renouncing the tasty food that one likes. This is for conquering the desire for tasty food and eliminating the attachment for the tasty food, and thus, enabling to strengthen the spiritual capability. There are many ways to limit the consumption of tasty food. For example: performance of  äyambil (tasteless meal - no oil, butter, red pepper, green or raw vegetables, etc.), abstaining from vigai (absence of milk, oil, butter, sugar, yogurt, and fried food), etc. To suppress one’s passions, it is essential that he overcomes his desire for tasty food. One who has a desire for tasty food, cannot be free of sensual instinct. Mahävir’s preaching in this respect is now more adopted by western doctors. American doctors tell their heart patients to reduce or stop the intake of milk, butter, sugar and the like. By willingly, putting the limits to the tasty foods one eradicates the Karmas, and  better health, lower risk of heart decease, diabetes, etc. are the by-products.

5. Käyäklesh (Physical Forbearance)

Käyä means body and klesha means forbearance. Body is an instrument that is needed in good condition for undertaking  spiritual pursuit (Sädhanä), and, therefore, it is important to develop its endurance power. By developing physical endurance power, Jiva is enabled to tolerate the bodily inconveniences with equanimity. There are several ways, one can practice the austerity of käyäklesha: 1. Location:  This involves practicing Sädhanä while standing. 2. Yogic posture (äsana): This involves practicing of various yogic postures such as virtäsan, vajräsan (diamond posture), padmäsan (lotus posture), etc. 3. Shayan (in lying down position):This involves practicing käyotsarga (total relaxation by experiencing that body and soul are separate) while lying down on the left or the right side. 4. Ätäpana: This requires standing steadily while facing the sun. 5. Aprävaran: This needs tolerating cold, specially in the winter season, without any or with few clothes on. 6. Sharir parikrama - parityäg: This involves putting on an exotic makeup on the body.

 

6. Pratisanlinatä (Controlling of Senses)

Ordinarily, we use our senses to satisfy our external needs, and that is supposed to give happiness. Pratisamlinatä involves restraining the senses from external happiness, and diverts their use for spiritual uplift. To control the sensual desires is also pratisamlinatä. As regard the sensual things, not to see them by eyes, not to hear them by ears, not to smell them by nose, not to taste them by tongue, and not to touch them by skin is called controlling of senses - pratisanlinatä. One should not develop a possessive attitude to what he is seeing, to what he is listening, to what he is smelling, to what he is tasting and to what he is touching. Sense organs are useful, if they are used for spiritual purposes.

Internal Types of Nirjarä

There are six internal types of austerity that shed the Karmas.

7. Präyaschhit (Repentance or remorse)

In präyaschhit, one trpents for the various errors of commission and omission, the faults and the sins committed. This can be performed in the presence of an ascetic or can be done alone. Präyaschhit helps us to reflect upon ourselves in a way that leads to self correction. Even for a small fault we should say " Michchha Mi Dukkadam." Präyaschhit is a very vital type of  nirjarä. Präyaschhit is a process of improving mental, emotional and spiritual health. Nirjarä is the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual clinical process. Whom would you go to for präyaschhit?  The preceptor you go to for präyaschhit should have certain qualifications. It is said in the Jain Ägam, Thänäng Sutra that the preceptor should have ten characteristics: 1. excellent paternal race, 2. excellent maternal race, 3. reverence (humility), 4. proper knowledge, 5. proper perception, 6. proper conduct, 7. forgiving and forbearing, 8 control over the senses, 9. straightforwardness and 10. remorsefulness for the mistakes.

There are nine types of präyaschhit.

(1) To confess one's mistake in the presence of the preceptor and with a pure heart ‑that is called älochana.

(2) To repent for the mistake that has been committed and to refrain from it, as also to remain alert that no new mistakes are committed ‑that is called pratikraman.

(3) When these älochana and pratikramana are performed together ‑that is called a combination of Alochana and pratikramana.

(4) When forbidden food and/or drink happen to have been received and the fact comes to light, then to discard these food and drink ‑that is called vivek.

(5) To regret for the mistake committed, one adopts concentration and  gives up the operations of body and speech ‑that is called vyutsarga.

6) To regret for the mistake committed, one performs external penances like anashan etc. ‑that is called tap.

(7) Corresponding to the gravity of the offense committed, the reckoned period of monkshood is reduced by a day, a fortnight, a month or a year ‑that is called chheda.

(8) To keep the offender at a distance and not to have any dealing with him for a specific period ‑that is called parihära.

(9) When on account of the violation, the adopted vratas are deemed to be forfeited ‑that is called upasthäpanä.

One who wants to repent for his mistakes should do so in a straightforward manner like a child. One cannot be truly regretful without having simplicity and purity of the heart. By truly carrying out the right process of präyaschhit, one sheds his unwholesome Karmas, and purifies himself. Therefore, präyaschhit is the austerity for purifying the soul.

8. Vinay (Humility)

Vinay denotes humbleness, submissiveness, kindness, courtesy, humility, civility, respect, etc. True meaning of Vinay is absence of ego. There are eight types of ego, and the person with vinay does not have any of them. Vinay saves Jiva from getting bad destinies like hell. Vinay is an internal quality of Jiva. Vinay is considered the root of the religion per the Jain canonical books. Vinay is given the utmost importance in Jainism, for example, it is discussed in the first chapter of Utarädhyayan Sutra. To have adequate vinay is the sign of right character. There are seven types of vinay: 1. vinay for knowledge, 2. vinay for perception, 3. vinay for conduct, 4. vinay of mind, 5. vinay of speech, 6. vinay of body and 7. vinay for paying homage.

9.  Vaiyävrutya (Selfless service)

To serve Sanyami (who practices self-restraint) with devotion and without any selfish motive is called vaiyävrutya. Vinay and vaiyävruttya differ from one another in that the former is a mental act and the latter a bodily one. If one offers right food, clothes, medicines, and other necessities to the Jain ascetics, it is called vaiyävrutya. There are ten types of people who are considered as deserving vaiyävrutya: (1) ächärya (chief of the religious order) (2) upädhyäya (who teaches others), (3) tapasvin (who performs some great and severe penance), (4) shaiksha (new ascetic), (5) glan (ailing ascetic), (6) gana (group of older ascetics), (7) kula (group of disciples under one ächärya), (8) sangha (constituted of Sädhu, Sädhvis, Shrävak and shrävikäs), (9) Sädhu and (10) samanojna (who is spiritually equal). Vaiyävrutya - rendering service to the worthy ones is like serving a Tirthankar. That enhances the unity of the sangha, strengthens the religious order, helps the needy and stabilizes the aspirant on the right path. That also creates an atmosphere of mutual help.

10.  Swädhyä (Self-study)

To undertake various practices with a view to acquiring the right knowledge is called swädhyäy or self‑study. Swädhyäy is a potent instrument for shedding Karmas. Swädhyäy also keeps the right knowledge alive for the next generation, and generations to come. Per Jain canonical books, Jain ascetics are required to do swädhyäy for about nine hours a day. If the Jain ascetic is irregular about doing his swädhyäy, then he is not truly a Jain Sädhu. He will drift into gossips, and eventually, will end up doing unwholesome activities. It is essential that Jain ascetics should keep their interest alive, and continue their swädhyäy per Jain canonical books. To acquire knowledge, to render it free from doubt, lucid and ripe and to seek to propagate it ‑all these can be covered in swädhyäy. It has been divided into five subtypes corresponding to the order followed in a course of study. They are as follows : (1) To take lessons in the wording or the meaning of a text ‑that is vächanä. (2) To make inquires to remove doubts or to confirm the understanding ‑that is pruchchhanä. (3) To correctly repeat the wording of a text that has been learnt ‑that is paravartana (meaning repetition). (4) To mentally ponder over the wording or the meaning of a text ‑that is anuprekshä.  (5) To grasp the secret of a text that has been learnt ‑that is dharmopadesha;  to preach things religiously is also dharmopadesha.

11.Dhyän (Meditation)

To stop the wandering (distractions) of the conscious mind (chitta) and to concentrate it on one thing is called meditation. The concentration can arise from intense attachment, lust, or animosity; or from the search for the truth and from detachment for the worldly affairs. Dhyän is the practice to retire the soul from unnatural activities and to get absorbed into the self. All Tirthankars meditated prior to achieving the perfect knowledge (keval-Jnän). No one has achieved Moksha without mediation.  Dhyän is divided into four categories: i) Ärta Dhyän, ii) Roudra Dhyän, iii) Dharma Dhyän, iv) Shukla Dhyän.

A person possessing a superior type of bone‑structure such as vajrarishabhanäracha, ardhavajrarishabhanäracha and näracha samhanana is capable of practicing the true Dhyän. To have sufficient mental power to perform Dhyän, one has to have sufficient physical power that comes only from these three types of bone-structures. If body power is weak, one will have weaker mental power, and therefore, weaker concentration. This does not mean that others should not meditate. The degree of success will be less for the persons with inferior bone-structure, but the progress will be spiritual, and in the right direction. An endeavor to put a stop to the gross bodily and mental operations is also a Dhyän.

Ärta and Roudra dhyän are the causes of worldly transmigration, are evil‑Dhyän and, therefore, they are to be avoided. On the other hand, dharmya dhyan and shukla dhyan are noble‑dhyän and are worth resorting to.

Ärta Dhyän

Dhyän that relates to distress or pain is called ärta dhyän. There are four causes that produce pain: 1. Getting what is not desired. 2. Losing what is desired. 3. Disagreeable situation. and 4. Hankering for material enjoyment..

Roudra Dhyän

There are four subtypes of roudra‑Dhyän corresponding to the above four possiblbilities. He whose heart is cruel or hard is considered roudra. Cruelty or hardness of heart leads to  violence,  lies,  stealing and  protecting the possessions by even the foul means.

Dharmya‑Dhyän

There are four types of dharmya Dhyän: (1) äjnäor commandment - Contemplating about the commandment of omniscients and how to get rid of passions. (2) apäya or misery - Contemplating about the nature of defilements and the resulting misery and unhappiness (3) vipäka or the fruition of Karma - Contemplating about the Karmas, and  the  consequences they yield. (4) sansthäna or structure of universe - Contemplating about the nature of the universe.

Shukla‑dhyän

There are four subtypes. First two can be performed by the persons who are in eleventh and twelfth gunasthänas, who are versed in Purva texts. However, there are exceptions, because Mäshtushmuni and Marudevi  could perform that dhyan even though they werle not well versed in the Purva texts. The last two subtypes of shukla Dhyän can be performed by kevalis (omniscients) who are in the thirteenth or fourteenth gunasthäna. The four subtypes are: 1.  Pruthaktvavitarka‑savichära, 2. Ekatvavitarka‑nirvichära, 3.  Suksmakriyä‑pratipätin and 4. Vyuparatakriyänivrtti (or Samuchchhinnakriyänivrtti). The first two subtypes of are associated with  scriptural knowledge. The first subtype involves transition while the second is devoid of it. In the first type, the practitioner switches his concentration from one form of a substance to another, from a substance to a mode, or from one mode to another, or from a meaning to a word or from a word to a meaning or, from one type of Yoga to another. When the practitioner introduces no such change, then the Dhyän is called ekatvavitarka avichära.  Thus first one is dominated by difference and the second one is dominated by constancy. When the meditation involves a subtle bodily Yoga while putting an end to all the remaining Yogas, then this act of concentration is called Sukshmakriyäpratipäti Dhyän. At this stage there proceeds only the subtle bodily activities like inhalation and exhalation, and there is no possibility of a fall from that. When even the subtle bodily activities like inhalation and exhalation cease altogether and the constituent units of the soul become free from all wavering, then the state is called samuchchhinnakriyä‑nivrtti‑Dhyän. In this state, no activity takes place. In the fourth subtype of Dhyän all äsrava and all bandha cease altogether, all Karmas come to the end, and liberation(Moksha) is attained. The last two are also called analambana or devoid of any dependence..

12.  Vyutsarga (abandonment of external & internal aspects)

There are two major types: 1. abandonment of external aspects is called Dravya vyutsarga, and 2. abandonment of internal aspects is called bhäv vyutsarga. There are four types of Dravya vyutsarga: 1. abandonment of body (käyotsarga), 2. ganavyutsarga (abandoning the company of other mendicants), 3. upadhi-vyutsarga (abandoning material objects such as clothes, pots, blanket, bench, medicine, etc.) and 4. bhakta-vyutsarga (abandoning the food and drink). There are three types of bhäv-vyutsarga: 1. Kashäy-vyutsarga (overcoming the passions), 2. Sansär-vyutsarga (abandoning the worldly life), 3.Karma-vyutsarga (eradicating Karmas). One has to have bhed-Jnän (vivek-Jnän = discriminatory knowledge that the soul and the body are separate) to be able to exercise vyutsarga.

More one practices these twelve austerities, lighter he becomes in his Karmas. Thus, samvar is the process of stopping the influx of Karmas, and nirjarä is the process of purifying the soul by eradicating the Karmas. These two processes liberate the soul from the cycle of birth and death, and thus, Moksha is achieved. Samvar and nirjarä therefore constitute the pillars of religion.

Other Austerities (Tapasyäs)

There are some other common external austerities. They are: 1) Navkärsi:  One must take food and water forty eight minutes after sunrise. 2) Porsi:  Taking food and water three hours after sunrise. 3) Sädh-porsi:  Taking food and water four hours and thirty minutes after sunrise. 4) Purimuddh: Taking food and water six hours after sunrise. 5) Avadhdh:  Taking food and water eight hours after sunrise. 6) Biyäsan:  Taking food twice a day. 7) Ekäsan:  Taking food only once. 8) Äyambil:  Taking blanches food only once. The food should not have any taste and spices and should be boiled or cooked. Also, one shall not take milk, curds, ghee, oil, fruits and green or raw vegetables. 9) Upaväs:  One must not take any food for almost thirty six hours starting from sunset on the previous day to sunrise the succeeding day.  a) Tivihär upaväs: One may drink only insentient water during   upaväs.  b) Chauvihär upaväs: One does not even take water during the upaväs. 10) Tivihär:  After sunset no food or juice shall be taken, but one may take only water until sunrise the next day. 11) Chauvihär: After sunset no food or water is taken until sunrise the next day. 12) Attham:  Upaväs for three consecutive days. 13) Atthai:  Upaväs for eight consecutive days. 14) Mäsakshaman: Consecutive upaväs for one month. 15) Navapad oli:  During every year for 9 days starting from the 6/7th day in the bright fortnight until the full moon day in Ashwin and Chaitra months, one does äyambil. This is repeated for the next four and half years. These äyambils can also be restricted to only one kind of food or grain per day. 16) Other austerities are: varshitap, vardhamän tap, visasthänak tap, etc.

V�"pe� С roy Mohniya karma and within 48 minutes of the destruction of Mohaniya Karma, Jnanavarniya, Darshanavarniya and Antar�y Karmas are also destroyed and one becomes a Kevali.

Other Austerities (Tapasyas)

There are some other common external austerities. They are:

1)   Navkarsi:   One must take food and water forty minutes after sunrise. Even the brushing of one�s teeth and rinsing of once mouth must be done after sunrise.

2) Porsi: Taking food and water three hours after sunrise.

3) Sadh-porsi: Taking food and water four hours and thirty minutes

after sunrise.

4) Purimuddh: Taking food and water six hours after sunrise.

5) Avadhdh: Taking food and water eight hours after sunrise.

6) Biyasan:Taking food twice a day sitting in one place.

7) Ekasan: Taking food only once sitting.

8) Ayambil: Taking food only once in one sitting. The food should not

have any taste and spices and should be boiled or cooked. Also, one

shall not take milk, curds, ghee, oil, and green or raw vegetables.

9) Upavas:   One must not take any food for twenty four hours starting from sunrise to sunrise the next day.

            a)   Tivihar upavas: One may drink only boiled water during upavas.

            b)   Chauvihar upavas: One does not even drink water during  upavas.

10) Tivihar:  After sunset no food or juice shall be taken, but one may take only water until sunrise the next day.

11) Chauvihar:  After sunset no food or water is taken until sunrise the next day.

12) Attham:  Upavas for three consecutive days.

13) Atthai: Upavas for eight consecutive days.

14) Masakshaman: Consecutive upavas for one month.

15) NavIn Ekasan, Biyasan, Ayambil, or upavas one drinks boiled water only and that too only between sunrise and sunset. It is better if one can do a chauvihar or tivihar day before starting these austerities. If any of the austerities allow food, one shall not take raw vegetables, underground roots, and raw grains while performing such austerities.

 

Pudgal (Matter) astikaya (homogenous continuums) i.e. pudgalastikaya or physical order of the existence can be defined through following characteristics:

1.  Association and dissociation

The first is the etymological definition, in which it has to be understood that word pudgal is formed of two words that is pud and gal, which means the nature of association and disassociation. It is the only substance which has the capacity to associate with other pudgals and also the pudgal in the form of aggregate can be disassociated and new forms can be formed. So on the basis of this etymological definition nature of pudgal  to be understood, which gives the idea that all the material objects can associate with each other and can again disassociates themselves. Combination is possible only in pudgal. It is one of the quality which is found in all pudgalastikaya and not in any other substance and thus is called characteristic i.e. lakshan.

2.  Touch, Taste, Odour and Colour

The second form of the definition is that matter posses qualities of sparsa, rasa, gandha, varna that is the structural definition, through which it has to be understosod that every pudgal, every material or physical existence, whether in the form of parmanu i.e. ultimate atom or in the form of aggregate of atoms, everywhere the four qualities or the attributes must be present. It is not possible that any of the material existence is devoid of these qualities. There is no matter in this world which doesn't possess sparsa, rasa, gandha, varna. So, all these four attributes according to the concept of Jain metaphysics are objective qualities of matter. Without these four qualities no matter i.e. physical existence is possible. Even in a single parmanu i.e. ultimate atom also possessed of all these four qualities.

Got a Question?, Ask Here...
Name
Email
Query